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Prize games, various quizzes, sporting events, and of course casinos — these are just some of the ways we try to make as much profit as possible, with a little money invested.
Before the advent of slot machines and casinos — gambling and betting were mostly the entertainment of rich people.
They bet on boxing matches, horse races, cockfights, etc. Scams were mostly prevalent there. Much of the money was given to match-fixing.
With the advent of casinos — scams have almost become an integral part of games. However, to this day, few people have managed to deceive the machine itself — although there have been such cases.
Even the slot machine manufacturers themselves do not know how to cheat the machine. For these things, they employ special people — who are currently engaged in programming and compiling algorithms.
With the advent of advanced technology — scams have become even more difficult to expose. With the introduction of new technologies in casinos , such as electronic roulettes and various slot machines — the set-up and fraud by players were less and less.
In general, such attempts failed. Attempts at fraud were mostly made at tables where card games were played. Players would generally track or count cards — and thus try to get money.
Rarely did anyone dare to take action and cheat the slot machine. It worked so well that Carmichael made money from selling it to other cheaters, as well as using it himself.
Perhaps inevitably, Carmichael was eventually arrested for using the wand in Charges were dropped on that occasion, but he was arrested again in and once more in He pled guilty to running an illegal gambling enterprise and was sentenced to more prison time.
He is now banned from playing in casinos, but he does work with them producing anti-cheating devices. Richard Marcus has been labeled as one of the greatest cheaters in the history of gambling.
The only reason anyone knows about his cheating exploits is because he chose to write a book about his life after he had made enough money and stopped cheating.
It was very similar to the past-posting cheating techniques that had been used, but with one key difference. Traditional past-posters would add chips to a winning bet using sleight of hand, but Marcus did it the other way round.
He would remove chips from a losing bet. He would go up to the roulette table and place a couple of chips down as his bet. He placed the top chip in a way that the bottom chip could not be seen.
If his bet lost, he would grab his chips which you are not actually allowed to do, hence the drunken act and fling them at the dealer.
If, however, his bet won then he would make a big deal of celebrating. At this point Marcus would point out the fact that the chip underneath was more valuable.
Because he had legitimately placed the bet, even if surveillance was checked by casino security they would find nothing wrong.
He knew how to manipulate a slot machine to his advantage. The light wand would effectively blind the optical sensor on slot machines so it would be unable to work out how many coins had been deposited into the machine so would not know when to pay out or how much.
A group of men worked together at the Caesars Boardwalk Regency casino in Atlantic City back in One man opened the targeted slot machine and attached inch long piano wires to the whirring guts of the game.
This allowed the group to manipulate the spins. This is one of the most cunning methods of cheating at slots and was popular with scammers in the s and s.
They used a special tool that was split into two parts. By putting the bottom in through the coin chute and the top through the coin slot, the cheats were able to jam the machine and force the game to release all the coins it had stored.
He was, of course, later arrested in , and died in Although this way of beating slots is not technically a cheat or a fraud, I decided to make it a part of this article.
Slots are programmed by people. And people make mistakes. A programming mistake can lead to a software glitch that can later knowingly or unknowingly be exploited by players.
And I could keep going. The point is that huge wins that happen due to a software glitch are pretty much never paid out.
It might instead provide a player with a stream of smaller wins, or misinterpret the money inserted into the machine in a way that favors the player.
Instances of this kind can stay under the radar, and can be exploited by crafty players. You have to be extremely lucky to find this type of bug though.
And even if you managed to do it, you can never be sure that you will actually get to see the money. Disclaimer: the following technical analysis is just my speculation as to what engineers at Aristocrat could have done wrong, and how Alex could have exploited it.
Despite the fact that I took all information available at the time into account, the real exploit could have differed in minor or major details.
The simplest PRNG algorithm described in The Art of Computer Programming which gives satisfactory results is actually quite simple:. This algorithm, known as Linear Congruential Generator LCG , is still used as a default PRNG algorithm in many programming languages e.
Could Aristocrat slot machine developers simply have used the default PRNG algorithm provided by the programming language they used?
Or could they have used the simplest PRNG which meets the requirement of uniformity? This default algorithm works and meets the criteria of uniformity of generated random numbers.
It might have met all the criteria programmers were working to in the requirements specification. The first step is to get to know the exact parameters of the algorithm parameters a, c and m.
This is the easy part, as these parameters are written in every slot machine. Alex just had to read the binary code from the cabinet memory and decompile it.
This is a task which any specialist in microelectronics can do if he is equipped with the proper tools. With the decompilation, you can actually read the parameters of all PRNG algorithms — even the cryptographically secure ones.
The LCG PRNG algorithm is generally characterized as easily predictable. This means that just by knowing 3 random numbers you are able to calculate a, c, m parameters and easily predict the next numbers in the sequence.
He was able to observe the produced random numbers indirectly by watching the positions where the reels stopped in recorded spins.
The key point is that logic of a slot game is deterministic and programmed inside the cabinet. So it can be decompiled, reverse-engineered and simulated somewhere else.
The game logic usually takes a random number and uses some mathematical operations to determine where each reel should stop.
The slot machine reels usually have around 50 to symbols, three of which are displayed on the screen. If the game has 5 reels, then on average just one of million random numbers gives the exactly the same result as the one observed by a player.
In fact, the number of spins you need is proportional to the length of the initial random number. If a slot machine used random numbers which are 64 bits long, then simulating all of them would require too much computational power years on my laptop.
I found 2 things they could have done to help Alex:. For the most part they should be ignored, but there are occasionally FOBT cheats, however once discovered they are usually corrected straight away.
Dennis Nikrasch thought he had a great idea when he bought a slot machine for his home. After playing around and messing about with the machine in his garage, he learned about all of its flaws.
He figured out the computer chips inside fruit machines could be re-programmed. Once he figured this out, he manipulated the chips to win jackpots as often as he wanted.
He was even crazy enough to hire a whole team of scammers who could help him tamper with all of the computer chips he bought. He scammed a lot of casinos for many years simply by switching the regular chips with his manipulated fraudulent chips.
There are so many more ways people have cheated on fruit machines and we're sure these stories are not going to be the last we hear.
People attempt to cheat all of the time but the reality is that you will get caught. Don't be like these cheaters!
Play fairly and luck will eventually come your way. Trophies Promotions All games.